Stephanie Dutkiewicz

Principal Research Scientist
54-1514, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
77 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139, USA

tel: 617 253 8039

My research interests lie at the intersection of the marine ecosystem and the physical and biogeochemical environment. I examine how physics and chemistry of the ocean determines phytoplankton biogeography, and how in turn those organisms affect their environment. I am particularly interested in how the interactions of these components of the earth system will change in a warming world. To advance this research I am involved in developing and using complex numerical models and simple theoretical frameworks, guided by laboratory, field and satellite observations.

Associated with:
MIT Center for Global Change Science
MIT Darwin Project
MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change
Program in Atmospheres, Oceans and Climate
MIT Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences


In Review:

Follett, C.L., S. Dutkiewicz, and M. Follows.
Why do diatom-diazotroph association bloom in the North Pacific subtropical summer?
In review for ISME Journal

Bracher, A., H. Bouman, A. Bricaud, R. Brewin, V. Brotas, A.M. Ciotti, L. Clementson, E. Devred, A. Di Cicco, S. Dutkiewicz, N. Hardman-Mountford, A. Hickmann, M. Hieronymi, T. Hirata, S. Loza, E. Organelli, D. Raitsos, J. Uitz, M. Vogt, A. Wolanin.
Obtaining Phytoplankton Diversity from Ocean Color: A Scientific Roadmap for Future Development.
In revision for Frontiers in Marine Science

Clayton, S., S. Dutkiewicz, O. Jahn. C.N. Hill, P. Heimbach, and M.J. Follows:
Biogeochemical versus ecological consequences of modeled ocean physics.
In revision for Biogeosciences

Vallina, S., P. Cermeno, S. Dutkiewicz, M. Loreau, and J.M. Montoya.
Phytoplankton functional diversity, productivity and stability.
Submitted to Ecological Letters

Peer Reviewed:


Song, H., J. Marshall, D.R. Munro, S. Dutkiewicz, C. Sweeney, and U. Hausmann.
Mesoscale modulation of air-sea CO2 flux in Drake Passage.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 121, 6635-6649

Lauderdale, J., S. Dutkiewicz, R. Williams, and M.J. Follows.
Quantifying the drivers of ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 30, 983-999, doi:10.1002/2016GB005400.

Monteiro, F.M., L.T. Bach, C. Brownlee, P. Bown, R. E. M. Rickaby, T. Tyrrell, L. Beaufort, S. Dutkiewicz, S. Gibbs, M. A. Gutowska, R. Lee, A. J. Poulton, U. Riebesell, J. Young, A. Ridgwell, 2016:
Why marine phytoplankton calcify.
Science Advances, 2, e1501822.

Song, H., J. Marshall, M.J. Follows, S. Dutkiewicz, and G. Forget.
Source waters for the highly productive Patagonian shelf in the southwestern Atlantic.
Journal of Marine Systems , 158, 120-128, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2016.02.009

Chien, C.-T., K.R.M. Mackey, S. Dutkiewicz, N.M. Mahowald, J.M. Prospero, and A. Paytan, 2016:
Effects of atmospheric dry deposition on phytoplankton downwind of the Sahara dust plume in the Western tropical Atlantic Ocean off Barbados.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles, doi:10.1002/2015GB005334

Tagliabue, A., O. Aumont, R. DeAth, J.P. Dunne, S. Dutkiewicz, E. Galbraith, K. Misumi, J.K. Moore, A. Ridgwell, E. Sherman, C. Stock, M. Vichi, C. Volker, and A. Yool, 2016:
How well do global ocean biogeochemistry models simulate dissolved iron distributions?
Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 30, doi:10.1002/2015GB005289. LINK


Levy, M., O. Jahn, S. Dutkiewicz, M.J. Follows, and F. d'Ovidio, 2015.
The dynamical landscape of marine phytoplankton diversity.
Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 12, 20150481.

Brix, H., D. Menemenlis, C.N. Hill, S. Dutkiewicz, O. Jahn, D. Wang, K. Bowman, and H. Zhang, 2015:
Using Green's Functions to Initialize and Adjust a Global, Eddying Ocean Biogeochemistry General Circulation Model.
Ocean Modeling , 95, 1-14, j.ocemod.2015.07.008. LINK

Dutkiewicz, S., A.E. Hickman, O. Jahn, W.W. Gregg, C.B. Mouw, and M.J. Follows, 2015:
Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model.
Biogeoscience, 12, 4447-4481 doi:10.5194/bg-12-4447-2015 LINK

Dutkiewicz, S., J.J. Morris, M.J. Follows, J.R. Scott, O. Levitan, S. Dyhrman, and I. Berman-Frank, 2015.
Impact of ocean acidfication on future phytoplankton communities.
Nature Climate Change, doi:10.1038/nclimate2722 LINK

Zhang, Y., D.J. Jacob, S. Dutkiewicz, H.M. Amos, M.S. Long, and E.M. Sunderland, 2015:
Biogeochemical drivers of the fate of riverine mercury discharge to the global and Arctic oceans.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 29, doi:10.1002/2015GB005124.


Dutkiewicz, S. B.A. Ward, J.R. Scott, and M.J. Follows, 2014:
Understanding Predicted Shifts in Diazotroph Biogeography using Resource Competition Theory.
Biogeosciences , 11, 5445-5461, doi:10.5194/bg-11-5445-2014. LINK

Amos H.M., D. J. Jacob, D. Kocman, H. M. Horowitz, Y. Zhang, S. Dutkiewicz, M. Horvat, E. S. Corbitt, E. M. Sunderland, 2014:
Global biogeochemical implications of mercury discharges from rivers and sediment burial.
Environmental Science and Technology , 48, 9514-9522, doi:10.1021/es50213t.

Moore, R.M., M. Kienast, M. Fraser, J. Cullen, C. Deutsch, S. Dutkiewicz, M.J. Follows, and C.J. Somes, 2014:
Substantial underestimation of nitrogen fixation suggested by hydrogen supersaturations in the Atlantic.
Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans , 119, 4340-4350, doi:10.1002/2014JC010017

Levy, M., O. Jahn, S. Dutkiewicz, and M.J. Follows, 2014:
Phytoplankton diversity and community structure affected by oceanic disperal and mesoscale turbulence.
Limnology and Oceanography: Fluids and Environment, 4, 67-84, doi:10.1215/21573869-2768549.

Vallina, S.M., M.J. Follows, S. Dutkiewicz, J. Montoya, P. Cermeno, and M. Loreau, 2014:
Global relationship between phytoplankton diversity and productivity in the ocean.
Nature Communications, 5:4299, doi:10.1038/ncomms5299. LINK PDF

Prowe, A.E.F., M. Pahlow, S. Dutkiewicz, and A. Oschlies, 2014:
How important is diversity to capture environmental change responses in ecosystem models?
Biogeosciences, 11, 3397-3407, doi:10.5194/bg-11-3397-2014. LINK

Death, R., J.L. Wadham, F. Monteiro, A.M. Le Brocq, M. Tranter, A. Ridgwell, S. Dutkiewicz, and R. Raiswell, 2014:
Antarctic Ice Sheet fertilises the Southern Ocean.
Biogeosciences , 11, 2635-2643, doi:10.5194/bg-11-2635-2104. PDF

Vallina, S.M, B.A. Ward, S. Dutkiewicz, and M.J. Follows, 2014:
Maximal foraging with active prey-switching: a new "kill the winner" functional response and its
effect on global species richness and biogeography.
Progress in Oceanography, 120, 93-109, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2013.08.001 PDF

Ward, B.A., S. Dutkiewicz, and M.J. Follows, 2014:
Modelling spatial and temporal patterns in size-structured marine plankton communities: top-down and bottom-up controls.
Journal of Plankton Research , 0, 1-17, doi: 10.1093/plankt/fbt097 PDF


Manizza, M., M. J. Follows, S. Dutkiewicz, D. Menemenlis, C. N. Hill, and R. M. Key, 2013:
Changes in the Arctic Ocean CO2 sink (1996-2007) : A regional model analysis.
Global Biogeochemical Cycle, 27, 1-11, doi: 10.1002/2012GB004491

Clayton, S., S. Dutkiewicz, O. Jahn, and M.J. Follows, 2013:
Disperal, eddies, and the diversity of marine phytoplankton.
Limnology and Oceanography: Fluids and Environment, 3, 182-199. doi:10.1215/21573689-2373515.

Ward, B.A., S. Dutkiewicz, C.M. Moore, and M.J. Follows, 2013:
Iron, phosphorus and nitrogen supply ratios define the biogeography of nitrogen fixation.
Limnology and Oceanography, 58, 2059-2075. LINK

Dutkiewicz, S., J.R. Scott, and M.J. Follows, 2013:
Winners and Losers: Ecological and Biogeochemical Changes in a Warming Ocean.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 27, 463-477, doi: 10.1002/gbc.20042. PDF

Reilly, J., S. Paltsev, K. Strzepek, N. E. Selin, Y. Cai, K.-M. Nam, E. Monier, S. Dutkiewicz, J. Scott, M. Webster, A. Sokolov, 2013:
Valuing climate impacts in integrated assessment models: The MIT IGSM.
Climatic Change, 117, 561-573.


Ward, B.A., S. Dutkiewicz, O. Jahn, and M.J. Follows, 2012:
A size structured food-web model for the global ocean.
Limnology and Oceanography, 57, 1877-1891 PDF

Prowe, A.E.F., M. Pahlow, S. Dutkiewicz, M.J. Follows, A. Oschlies, 2012:
Top-down control of marine phytoplankton diversity in a global ecosystem model.
Progress in Oceanography, 101, 1-13, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2011.11.016. PDF

Dutkiewicz, S., B.A. Ward, F. Monteiro, And M.J. Follows, 2012:
Interconnection between nitrogen fixers and iron in the Pacfic Ocean: Theory and numerical model.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles , 26, GB1012, doi:10.1029/2011GB004039 PDF

Kempes, C.P., S. Dutkiewicz, and M.J. Follows, 2012:
Growth, metabolic partitioning, and the size of microorganisms.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 109, 495-500, doi:10.1073/pnas.1115585109. LINK


Manizza, M., M.J. Follows, S. Dutkiewicz, D. Menemenlis, J. McClelland, C.N. Hill, B. Peterson, and R. Key, 2011:
A model of the Arctic Ocean carbon cycle.
Journal and Geophysical Research, 116, C12020, doi:10.1029/2011JC006998. PDF

Ward, B.A., S. Dutkiewicz, A.D. Barton, and M.J. Follows, 2011:
Biophysical aspects of resource acquisition and competition in algal mixotrophs.
American Naturalist , 178, 98-112. LINK PDF

Monteiro, F., S. Dutkiewicz, and M.J. Follows, 2011:
Biogeographical controls on the marine nitrogen fixers.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 25, GB2003, doi:10.1029/2010GB003902. PDF

Saito, M.S., E.M. Bertrand, S. Dutkiewicz, V.V. Bulygin, D.M. Moran, F.M. Monteiro, M.J. Follows, F.W. Valois, J.B. Waterbury, 2011:
Strategies for Iron Conservation in the Marine Diazotroph Crocosphaera watsonii as Revealed by Proteomic Analysis.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 108, 2184-2189. LINK

Omta, A.W., S. Dutkiewicz, and M.J. Follows, 2011:
The dependence of the ocean-atmosphere partitioning of carbon on temperature and alkalinity.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 25, GB1003, doi:10.1029/2010GB003839. PDF

Follows, M.J. and S. Dutkiewicz, 2011:
Modeling diverse communities of marine microbes.
Annual Reviews of Marine Science, 3, 427-451. PDF


Monteiro, F., M. J. Follows and S. Dutkiewicz, 2010:
Distribution of diverse nitrogen fixers in the global ocean.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, GB3017, doi:10.1029/2009GB003731. PDF

Saba, V.S., M.A.M. Friedrichs, M.-E. Carr, ..., S. Dutkiewicz, ... et al., 2010:
The challenges of modeling depth-integrated marine primary productivity over multiple decades: A case study at BATS and HOT.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, GB3020, doi:10.1029/2009GB003655. PDF

Hickman, A.E., S. Dutkiewicz, R.G. Williams, and M.J. Follows, 2010:
Modelling the effects of chromatic adaptation on phytoplankton comunity structure in the oligotrophic ocean.
Marine Ecology Progress Series , 406, 1-17, doi:10.3354/meps08588. PDF

Bragg, J.G., S. Dutkiewicz, O. Jahn, M.J. Follows, S.W. Chisholm, 2010:
Modeling selective pressures on picocyanobacterial nitrogen use in the global ocean.
PLoS ONE, 5(3): e9569. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009569. LINK

Barton, A.D., S. Dutkiewicz, G. Flierl, J. Bragg, and M.J. Follows, 2010:
Response to Comment on "Patterns of Diversity in Marine Phytoplankton"
Science, 329 (5991), 512-d. doi:10.1126/science.1190048 LINK

Barton, A.D., S. Dutkiewicz, G. Flierl, J. Bragg, and M.J. Follows, 2010:
Patterns of Diversity in Marine Phytoplankton.
Science, 327 (5972), 10.1126/science.1184961. LINK PDF


Dutkiewicz, S., M. J. Follows, and J. G. Bragg, 2009:
Modeling the coupling of ocean ecology and biogeochemistry,
Global Biogeochem. Cycles , 23, GB4017, doi:10.1029/2008GB003405. PDF

Ullman, D. J., G. A. McKinley, V. Bennington, and S. Dutkiewicz, 2009:
Trends in the North Atlantic carbon sink: 1992-2006,
Global Biogeochem. Cycles , 23, GB4011, doi:10.1029/2008GB003383. PDF

Manizza, M., M. J. Follows, S. Dutkiewicz, J. W. McClelland, D. Menemenlis,
C.N. Hill, A. Townsend-Small, and B. J. Peterson, 2009:
Modeling transport and fate of riverine dissolved organic carbon in the Arctic Ocean,
Global Biogeochemical Cycles , 23, GB4006, doi:10.1029/2008GB003396. PDF

Bennington,V., G. A. McKinley, S. Dutkiewicz, and D. Ullman, 2009:
What does chlorophyll variability tell us about export and air-sea CO2 flux variability in the North Atlantic?
Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 23, GB3002, doi:10.1029/2008GB003241. PDF

Sokolov, A.P., P.H. Stone, C.E. Forest, R. Prinn, M.C. Sarofim, M. Webster, S. Paltsev,
C.A. Schlosser, D. Kicklighter, S. Dutkiewicz, J. Reilly, C. Wang, B Felzer, H.D. Jacoby, 2009:
Probabilistic forecast for 21st century climate based on uncertainties in emissions
(without policy) and climate parameters.
Journal of Climate, doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI2863.1. LINK PDF CORRIGENDUM

Gruber, N., M. Gloor, S.E. Mikaloff-Fletcher, S.C. Doney, S. Dutkiewicz, M. Follows, M. Gerber,
A.R. Jacobson, F. Joos, K. Lindsay, D. Menemenlis, A. Moucheta S.A. Muller, J. L. Sarmiento,
and T. Takahashi, 2009:
Oceanic sources, sinks and transport of atmospheric CO2.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 23, GB1005, doi:10.1029/2008GB003349. PDF


Cermeno, P., S. Dutkiewicz, P.G. Falkowski, M. Follows, R.P. Harris, and O. Schofield, 2008:
The role of oceanic nutricline depth in regulating Earth's carbon cycle.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, doi:10.1073/pnas.0811302106. LINK

Plattner, G.-K, R. Knutti, F. Joos, T. F. Stocker, W. von Bloh, V. Brovkin, D. Cameron,
E. Driesschaert, S. Dutkiewicz, M. Eby, N. R. Edwards, T. Fichefet, J. C. Hargreaves, C. D. Jones,
M. F. Loutre, H. D. Matthews, A. Mouchet, S. A. Mueller, S. Nawrath, A. Price, A. Sokolov,
K. M. Strassmann, and A. J. Weaver, 2008:
Long-term climate commitments projected with climate - carbon cycle models.
Journal of Climate , 21, 2721-2751. PDF


Verdy, A., S. Dutkiewicz, M.J. Follows, J. Marshall and A. Czaja, 2007:
Carbon Dioxide and oxygen fluxes in the Southern Ocean: mechanisms for interannual variability.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21, doi:10.1029/2006GB002916. PDF

Follows, M.J., S. Dutkiewicz, S. Grant, and S.W. Chisholm, 2007:
Emergent biogeography of microbial communities in a model ocean.
Science, 315, 1843-1846, doi:10.1126/science.1138544. LINK PDF SUPPLEMENTAL

Goodwin, P., R.G. Williams, M.J. Follows, and S. Dutkiewicz, 2007:
The Ocean-Atmosphere Partitioning of Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide on Centennial Timescales.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21, GB1014, doi:10.1029/2006GB002810. PDF

Friis, K., R. Najjar, M.J. Follows, S. Dutkiewicz, A. Kortziner, and K. M. Johnson, 2007:
Dissolution of calcium carbonate: observations and model results in the subpolar North Atlantic.
Biogeosciences , 4, 205-213. LINK

Mikaloff Fletcher, S.E., N.P. Gruber, A.R. Jacobson, M. Gloor, S.C. Doney, S. Dutkiewicz,
M. Gerber, M. Follows, K. Lindsay, D. Menemenlis, A. Mouchet, S.A. Muller, and J. Sarmiento, 2007:
Inverse estimates of the oceanic sources and sinks of natural CO2 in and their implied oceanic transport.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles , 21, GB1010, doi:10.1029/2006GB002751. PDF


Friis, K., R. Najjar, M.J. Follows, and S. Dutkiewicz, 2006:
Possible overestimation of shallow-depth calcium carbonate dissolution in the ocean.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 20, GB4019, doi:10.1029/2006GB002727. PDF

Parekh, P., M. J. Follows, S. Dutkiewicz, and T. Ito, 2006:
Physical and biological regulation of the soft tissue carbon pump.
Paleoceanography , 21, PA3001, doi:10.1029/2005PA001258. PDF

Mikaloff Fletcher, S.E., N.P. Gruber, A.R. Jacobson, S.C. Doney, S. Dutkiewicz, M. Follows,
K. Lindsay, D. Menemenlis, A. Mouchet, and J. Sarmiento, 2006:
Inverse estimates of anthropogenic CO2 uptake, transport, and storage by the ocean.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles , 20, GB2002, doi:10.1029/2005GB002530. PDF

Parekh, P., S. Dutkiewicz, M. Follows, and T. Ito, 2006:
Atmospheric carbon dioxide in a less dusty world.
Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L03610, doi:10.1029/2005GL025098. PDF

Dutkiewicz, S., M. Follows, P. Heimbach, and J. Marshall, 2006:
Controls on ocean productivity and air-sea carbon flux: an adjoint model sensitivity study.
Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L02603, doi:10.1029/2005GL024987. PDF

Follows, M., T. Ito and S. Dutkiewicz, 2006:
A Compact and Accurate Carbonate Chemistry Solver for Ocean Biogeochemistry Models.
Ocean Modeling, 12, 290-301. PDF

2005 and earlier

Ito, T., P. Parekh, S. Dutkiewicz, and M. Follows, 2005:
The Antarctic Productivity Belt.
Geophysical Research Letters, 32, doi:10.1029/2005GL023021. PDF

Dutkiewicz, S., M. Follows, and P. Parekh, 2005:
Interactions of the iron and phosphorus cycles: a three-dimensional model study.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 19, GB1021, doi:10.1029/2004GB002342. PDF

Follows, M. and S. Dutkiewicz, 2002:
Meteorological Modulation of the North Atlantic Spring Bloom.
Deep-Sea Research II , 49, 321 -- 344. PDF

Doney, S.C, I. Lima, K. Lindsay, J.K. Moore, S. Dutkiewicz, M.A.M. Friedrichs and R.J. Matear, 2001:
Marine Biogeochemical Modeling.
Oceanography , 14-4, 93 -- 107.

Dutkiewicz, S., M. Follows, J. Marshall and W. Gregg, 2001:
Interannual Variability of Phytoplankton Abundances in the North Atlantic.
Deep-Sea Research II, 48, 2,323 -- 2,344. PDF

Dutkiewicz, S., L. Rothstein and H.T. Rossby, 2001:
Pathways of Cross-Frontal Exchange in the North Atlantic Current.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 26,917 -- 26,928. PDF

Dutkiewicz, S. and N. Paldor, 1994:
A Note on the Mixing Enhancement in a Meandering Jet due to the Interaction with an Eddy.
Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24, 2,418-2,423. PDF

Dutkiewicz, S., A. Griffa and D.B. Olson, 1993:
Particles Diffusion in a Meandering Jet.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 98, 16,487 - 16,500. PDF

Non-Refereed Articles:

Barton, A.D., S. Dutkiewicz, K.H. Andersen, O. Fiksen, M. Follows, C. Mouw, N. Record, and T. Rynearson (2016)
Report on the Trait-based approaches to ocean life scoping workshop, October 5-8, 2015, U.S. Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Program, 35 pp., doi: 10.1575/1912/8017.

Paltsev, S., E. Monier, H. Chen, C. Fant, J. Morris, J. Reilly, A. Sokolov, J. Huang, K. Strzepek, Q. Ejaz, D. Kicklighter, S. Dutkiewicz, J. Scott, A. Schlosser, H. Jacoby, A. Resutek, J. Bartholomay and A. Slinn, 2014:
Energy and Climate Outlook 2014, MIT Joint Program Special Report, September, 24 pgs.

Dutkiewicz, S. 2012: Power in Modeling Virtual Marine Microbes.
Invited feature article, Microbes magazine, 7, 314-319. LINK

Paltsev, A., S. Dutkiewicz, V. Ekstrom, C. Forest, A. Gurgel, J. Huang, V. Karplus, E. Monier, J. Reilly, J. Scott, A. Slinn, T. Smith-Grieco, A. Sokolov.
Energy and Climate Outlook 2012.
Joint Program Special Report. LINK

Dutkiewicz, S. 2011: Driving ecosytem and biogeochemical models with optimal state estimates of the ocean circulation.
U.S. Clivar Variations , 9, 1-4. PDF

Prinn, R., P. Heimbach, M. Rigby, S. Dutkiewicz, J.M. Melillo, J.M. Reilly, D.W. Kicklighter and C. Waugh, 2011:
A Strategy for a Global Observing System for Verification of National Greenhouse Gas Emissions.
Report 200, Joint Program of the Science and Policy of Global Change, M.I.T., Cambridge, MA. PDF

Dutkiewicz, S., G. Beaugrand, N. Hoepffner, D. Kamykowski, F. Melin, 2009:
Applications to Biogeochemical Cycles and Global Climate Change.
In Partition of the Ocean into Ecological Provinces: Role of Ocean-Colour Radiometry ,
Dowell, M. and T. Platt (eds.),
Reports of the International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group, No. 9, IOCCG, Dartmouth, Canada. LINK

Dutkiewicz, S., R. Froutin, S. Sathyendranath, B.M. Uz, 2008:
Ocean-Colour Radiometry and Ocean Physics.
In Why Ocean Colour? The Societal Benefits of Ocean-Colour Technology ,
Platt, T. Hoepffner, N., Stuart, V. and Brown, C. (eds.),
Reports of the International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group, No. 7, IOCCG, Dartmouth, Canada. LINK

Sokolov, A.P., S. Dutkiewicz, P.H. Stone and J.R. Scott, 2005:
Evaluating the Use of Ocean Models of Different Complexity in Climate Change Studies.
Report 128, Joint Program of the Science and Policy of Global Change, M.I.T., Cambridge, MA. PDF

Dutkiewicz. S., A. Sokolov, J. Scott and P. Stone, 2005:
A Three-Dimensional Ocean-Seaice-Carbon Cycle Model and its Coupling to a Two-Dimensional
Atmospheric Model: Uses in Climate Change Studies.
Report 122, Joint Program of the Science and Policy of Global Change, M.I.T., Cambridge, MA. PDF

Sokolov, A.P, C.A. Schlosser, S. Dutkiewicz, S. Paltsev, D.W. Kicklighter, H. Jacoby, R. Prinn,
C.E. Forest, J. Reilly, C. Wang, M.C. Sarofim, J. Scott, P.Stone and J. Cohen, 2005:
The MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) Version 2: Model Description and Baseline Evaluation.
Report 124, Joint Program of the Science and Policy of Global Change, M.I.T., Cambridge, MA. PDF